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Application of Optoelectronic Hybrid Cable in Network Communication

Time:2021-08-14| Author:admin

Application of Optoelectronic Hybrid Cable in Network Communication

In the diversified needs of the new era, the role of photoelectric hybrid cable is becoming more and more important. For example, there will be application needs of photoelectric hybrid cable in 5g small base station coverage, DC remote supply scheme, ftta wiring, smart lamp pole wiring, high-density line finding in data center, consumer electronics application cables, submarine photoelectric hybrid cables, etc.

1. Introduction to photoelectric hybrid cable

Photoelectric composite cable is a new type of access method, which is suitable for transmission line in broadband access network system. It integrates optical fiber and transmission copper wire, and can solve the problems of broadband access, equipment power consumption and signal transmission.

The world's first photoelectric hybrid cable was developed by Sumitomo Electric Company of Japan in 1978 for submarine photoelectric transmission. According to the actual use, at present, photoelectric hybrid cables can be divided into pipeline type, overhead type, directly buried type, indoor wiring type, special purpose type and other types. The number of optical fiber cores is generally 2-144 cores, and the cable voltage range is 48v-110kv.

The obvious advantages of photoelectric hybrid cable are

(1) Provide high bandwidth access and solve the problem of equipment power consumption in network construction;

(2) Small outer diameter, light weight and small occupied space;

(3) It has excellent bending performance and good lateral pressure resistance, and is convenient for construction.

However, optoelectronic hybrid cable also has its limitations, such as:

(1) In the current standards, the optical cable is erected according to the standards of "no electricity" or "weak electricity". The photoelectric hybrid cable may not be suitable for laying in the weak current pipeline, and the construction specifications need to be further clarified;

(2) The photoelectric hybrid cable is charged, so attention should be paid to the risk of electric shock for construction and maintenance;

(3) The concept of "copper free optical cable" is not applicable to photoelectric hybrid cable. If it is used as ordinary optical cable, the photoelectric composite cable may be stolen.

2. Development of next generation network communication

According to the prediction data from GSMA, by 2025, 1.3 billion people in the world will use 5g, the 5g network coverage will reach 40%, and the number of 5g mobile terminal connections will reach 1.4 billion. On the other hand, statistics show that more than 967 million households in the world have access to broadband, and 286 operators in 49 countries have launched Gigabit broadband services. The emergence of innovative family businesses such as smart home and smart home will also promote the construction of a new business form with family as the core.

It can be predicted that in the near future, our network will be a "double Gigabit" era of "5g + optical fiber fixed network". China's optical fiber network has been relatively mature after years of construction, but there are two "blind fill" needs in network coverage: individual regional networks fail to fully cover (such as rural remote areas), and the power supply in these areas may not be perfect;

Under the demand of the new generation network, the coverage density of network equipment has increased greatly (for example, the density of 5g small base station will be significantly higher than that of 4G), and the power supply problem of new points of these equipment may bring trouble to the equipment layout.

The above two demand points bring new demands to the wiring system, and the photoelectric hybrid cable provides a more reasonable solution to meet such application scenarios.

3. Application of optoelectronic hybrid cable in next generation network communication

In the "double Gigabit" era, the network has higher and higher requirements for speed, more and more strict requirements for network reliability, and requires full network coverage. Under the new networking situation, optoelectronic hybrid cables have application requirements in many fields. Here are some of them:

3.1 application requirements of small base station coverage for photoelectric hybrid cable in 5g Era

With the continuous increase of 5g business types and the continuous expansion of industry boundaries, the industry predicts that more mobile services will occur indoors in the future. High definition video, AR / VR, telemedicine, industrial manufacturing automation and modern logistics management of 5g applications mainly occur in indoor scenes of buildings and need higher bandwidth to carry. In order to obtain more bandwidth, indoor 5g introduces higher frequency bands (C-band and millimeter wave), which means greater transmission and penetration losses and more intensive networking. The construction of high-density small base stations will be the necessity of 5g indoor scene construction.

At the same time, the massive active network equipment in the 5g era will bring new challenges to the operation and maintenance and system energy consumption management, and the power supply of a large number of small base station equipment will be a difficult problem that the network construction unit must solve. The optoelectronic hybrid cable integrates optical unit and electrical unit at the same time, which can provide signal transmission for small base station equipment and power supply for small base station equipment. It is one of the mainstream solutions to solve the problem of 5g small base station coverage.

5g indoor small base station wiring scheme

As shown in the figure above, it is a typical networking scheme of small base station coverage with photoelectric hybrid cables. BBU provides network coverage for the whole building or an area, hub provides floor (or multi-storey building public hub) coverage, and power supply equipment is set at the same time. The vertical wiring between hub and BBU equipment is connected through single-mode optical fiber, while the horizontal wiring between hub and small base station is connected through photoelectric hybrid cable. At the same time, it provides signal transmission and low-voltage DC power supply for small base station, and there is no need to take power again at the side of small base station. This scheme has the following advantages:

1. Centralized power distribution solves the problem of distributed power supply for small base stations: by setting centralized power supply points on the floor and supplying power through photoelectric hybrid cables, there is no need to provide power supply for small base station equipment, which solves the problem of power acquisition in network construction;

2. The rate can meet the future upgrade requirements of 5g indoor coverage: single-mode optical fiber can effectively support the 10g / 25gbps rate requirements. Only optical modules with different rates need to be configured, and the wiring system does not need to be upgraded again. The following figure is a cross-sectional view of more mainstream optoelectronic hybrid cables;

3. Convenient construction: at present, the mainstream hub equipment and small base station equipment are equipped with optical fiber interface and RJ45 power supply interface, which can be made and connected on site during construction

To sum up, the indoor small base station coverage scheme and the networking mode based on photoelectric hybrid cable can meet the requirements of high-speed application and solve the power supply problem. It will be widely used in the subsequent 5g construction process.

3.2 requirements of DC remote supply scheme for photoelectric hybrid cable

With the implementation of 4G / 5G and broadband China strategies, communication optical cables and equipment continue to extend to the user side. The power supply of equipment such as remote base stations, communication rooms and user access points has become a thorny problem, especially in some remote areas. The DC remote supply scheme of photoelectric hybrid cable is conducive to the centralized construction, operation and maintenance of power equipment in the network. It can realize the common cable transmission of high-efficiency electric energy and optical signal at the same time, with low construction cost and high operation and maintenance efficiency.

The common practice of high-voltage DC remote power supply system is that the power supply is composed of local end and remote equipment. The DC48V power of the power supply in the machine room is isolated and boosted to about 200 ~ 400V DC high voltage through the local end equipment of remote power supply, the DC high voltage is transmitted to the remote equipment through photoelectric hybrid cable, and the voltage is inverted through the remote equipment, Change to the voltage required by the remote equipment (such as DC48V or AC220V) to provide all-weather maintenance free power supply for the load (RRU, optical fiber repeater, small macro base station, micro cellular base station, ONU and other equipment). In this application scenario, the conventional cable types are GDTA and GDTs, as shown in the figure above.

3.3 application of line finding demand to photoelectric hybrid cable in high-density wiring

For the support platform of information application, large and super large data centers are increasing, and the requirements for information storage and processing capacity are higher and higher. As the infrastructure of data center informatization, generic cabling system is an important part of data center system network operation. In the face of a large number of cables, how to carry out effective operation and management has attracted more and more attention. In order to solve this problem, various manufacturers have launched different forms of cable search schemes, in which photoelectric hybrid cable is constantly playing its role in this field.

In order to realize the management and control of the optical fiber port, the electronic distribution frame system can be adopted. The intelligent optical fiber jumper is composed of traditional optical jumper + 1-2 copper wires. The LED lamp is integrated at the distribution frame port. The port information collection judges the link state through the connection and disconnection of the copper wire and LED lamp line in the intelligent optical fiber jumper, so as to indicate the port state.

In terms of network cable routing, in addition to embedding copper wire and using LED as port indication, the wiring manufacturer also has the alternative of photoelectric hybrid cable: that is, integrate plastic optical fiber in the network cable, illuminate it through an external visible light source, and indicate the corresponding cable shape at the other end of the cable.

3.4 optoelectronic hybrid cable for consumer electronics

With the promotion of FTTH / 5G, the application bandwidth will be further improved, and HD video conference / Ar / VR / telemedicine / 8K video will gradually enter people's daily life. These high bandwidth experiences, traditional copper cables will be difficult to meet the application requirements, especially the application distance requirements of copper cables, which will further limit the further application of traditional copper cables in the field of consumer electronics, Therefore, using optical fiber for data transmission will be one of the mainstream directions of the development of consumer electronic cables.

Based on the requirements of application scenarios, equipment power supply also puts forward certain demands for cables. The photoelectric hybrid cable integrates optical fiber and power cord, which can effectively solve the application requirements. Only one cable needs to be laid to solve the problems of communication and power supply at the same time, providing a more reasonable choice for consumer electronics applications. The more commonly used connector interfaces include usb3.0/hdmi, etc, Compared with traditional consumer electronics cables, it has the following advantages:

Small size, light weight, excellent mechanical and bending properties;

High optical fiber transmission efficiency, flexible wiring and strong anti electromagnetic interference ability;

At the same time, it can supply power to terminal equipment;

It can solve the problem of long-distance transmission (such as shopping malls, billboards, etc.).

4. Precautions for construction and installation of photoelectric hybrid cable

When using photoelectric hybrid cable, the following items should be noted:

1. The selected optoelectronic hybrid cable must meet the requirements of corresponding standards and specifications, such as YD / T 2159-2010 optoelectronic hybrid cable for access network and qc-b-001-2013 technical specification for optoelectronic hybrid cable for China mobile access network.

2. When using photoelectric hybrid cable, it shall meet the design and construction specifications of power cable and communication optical cable: such as YD 5102-2010 code for design of communication line engineering;

3. The connection in the photoelectric hybrid cable line shall be avoided as far as possible. The line within 3km shall not be connected. The special joint box for photoelectric hybrid cable must be used and waterproof treatment must be done;

4. When the photoelectric hybrid cable is terminated, a special termination device shall be used;

5. Photoelectric hybrid cable lines shall be laid separately as far as possible and protected by PVC pipes;

6. During the construction process, it is necessary to ensure the integrity of the outer sheath of the photoelectric hybrid cable. After the construction is completed, before the photoelectric composite cable is powered on, it is necessary to test the insulation performance of the transmission conductor to the ground, armor and metal reinforcing core;

7. The line shall be regularly inspected by personnel with power maintenance qualification and communication maintenance qualification;

8. In case of fault repair, the power shall be cut off for maintenance, and the line conductor shall be grounded before maintenance.

5. Summary

In the "double Gigabit" era of "5g + optical fiber fixed network", the demand of the network for the wiring system is further diversified. The photoelectric hybrid cable integrates the functions of optical fiber and power line to realize the integration of communication and power supply, which will play a greater and greater role. At the same time, the complexity of cable structure is determined by the diversity of its functions

However, as long as there is a reasonable structural design, it can better meet and realize the function of composite cable, reduce the manufacturing cost and maximize the benefits while meeting the manufacturing standards.

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